September 18 2021
The human eye is a specialized sensory organ that is capable of receiving visual images and transports them to the brain. All the parts of the human eye have a specialized function to perform for it to function properly. The parts of an eye are:
- Cornea: The cornea is a clear and transparent part (front) of the eye covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber. It performs the function of refracting or bending the light that enters the eye.
- Iris: Iris is a pigmented tissue that lies behind the cornea (that gives color to the eye) and controls the amount of light that enters into the eye. The amount of light that enters the eye depends on the color of the iris. It facilitates near-point reading and controls the light.
- Pupil: it is a variable (in terms of size) black colored circular opening positioned at the center of the iris. It is responsible for the regulation of the amount of light entering the eye.
- Lens: it is a transparent and biconvex intraocular tissue that is responsible for bringing rays of light to focus on the retina. It has to be clear and must have a power of +16 to function properly.
- Anterior chamber: aqueous humor is a clear and watery fluid that fills in the space between the back surface of the cornea and the front space of the vitreous. So, the anterior chamber is filled with this fluid. The human eye gets the oxygen supply from this fluid.
- Retina: it is a nerve tissue that is light sensitive responsible for image formation. It converts the images that it gets from the optical system, into electrical impulses which are sent to the brain, via the optic nerve and are interpreted as vision there.
- Optic nerve: it is the largest sensory nerve located in the eye and is responsible for carrying the impulses for sight from the retina to the brain.
- Sclera: it is an opaque, tough fibrous layer of the eye, which provides protection and form to it. It is directly continuous with a cornea at the front of it.
- Tear layer: it is the first layer of the eye which the light strikes; and is clear, moist, and salty with the function of moisturizing the eye.
- Vitreous humor: it is the transparent and colorless gelatin-like fluid that fills up the rear two- thirds of the eyeball between the retina and lens. It is a very important part of the eye, without which the eye could collapse.
- Red-eye: the surface of the eyes is covered with blood vessels. When the eyes get irritated or infected, these vessels expand and make the eyes red. It may happen because of certain allergies, lack of sleep, injuries, or infections like conjunctivitis.
- Color blindness: it is a condition in which the affected person isn’t able to see some colors or can’t tell the difference between them. It happens as a result of the absence or dysfunctioning cone cells.
- Dry eyes: this condition is associated with a lack of or no tears. A burning sensation or the feeling that something is in your eye might be experienced in this condition. In some severe and rare cases, this may even lead to loss of vision.
- Excessive tears: this condition happens as a result of sensitivity to light, wind, or extreme temperatures. If this is chronic, it may even lead to some serious problems, like infection of a blocked tear duct. It is advised to protect the eyes with a shield or sunglasses, to overcome this condition.
- Eye strain: reading or working on a computer for long periods, sometimes puts a strain on the eye. It is advised to give your eyes some rest if they feel tired, or strained.
How to take care of the eyes?
- Nutrition: for keeping the eyes healthy, it is important to take essential and some key vitamins and minerals in the diet. Vitamin A, vitamin C, zinc, and vitamin E help in treating as well as preventing macular degeneration (a condition in which the macula deteriorates). Their benefits to the eyes are closely associated with the antioxidants they possess. Carrots, red peppers, broccoli, strawberries, citrus fruits, spinach, flaxseed, and fish are some of the foods that are considered beneficial for the functioning of the eyes.
- One may also opt for dietary supplements of fish oil or flaxseed oil like alvizia’s alenfish or alenflax. They are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids, which promote the functioning and overall health of the eyes.
- Be physically fit: exercising regularly and maintaining a healthy body weight can benefit the eyes. Certain diseases like type-II diabetes (which is more common in obese people), can cause problems or damage to the blood vessels present in the eyes, which leads to a condition called diabetic retinopathy. So, it is advised to exercise regularly and maintain healthy body weight to ensure proper functioning eyes and reduce the risks of diabetes.
- Protect your eyes: when out in the sun, or working in a garage, or doing experiments, it is important to wear protective eyewear that is appropriate to perform its function. It reduces the risk of injuries from sharp objects, chemicals, etc. Sunlight may also put a strain on the eyes, which is why it is advised to wear sunglasses when they are exposed to the sun.
- Quit smoking: smoking is bad for your lungs, heart, skin, hair, teeth, and eyes too. It increases the risk of developing cataracts and other diseases (for example, age-related macular degeneration. If a person avoids smoking, his/ her blood vessels will stay healthy for many more years, preventing inflammation throughout the body.
- Clean your hands and lenses: the human eye is pretty vulnerable to certain infections and microbes. Normal irritants may also cause problems in your vision. Hence, it is advised to wash your hands and disinfect the contact lenses before touching the eyes. The contact lenses must also be replaced as told by the doctor.