August 06 2021
Skin tone is genetically inherited. The amount of sebum which is the natural skin oil the skin produces to protect its moisture balance decides the category of the skin either as normal, dry, oily, and combination type.
Normal skin - This type of skin is healthy and well moisturized with the appropriate amount of serum - neither too much nor too little. Smooth appearance, proper blood circulation, and the absence of blemishes are the characteristic features of normal skin. Normal skin can tolerate internal or external factors of change without any significant damage. With the onset of age, normal skin dries out thus an anti-aging skin care regimen is essential to preserve the skin tone.
Dry skin - In dry skin type, there is lower production of sebum which in turn results in making the skin brittle requiring the application of moisturizer to increase skin hydration. In dry skin type, extremely hot showers should be avoided as they dry out the skin, and products containing detergents or sulfates should also not be used as they further irritate dry skin. Sunscreen should be worn at all times to protect the skin from sun damage leading to dehydration.
Oily skin - Oily skin has more production of sebum than normal skin making it more prone to developing blemishes and enlarged pores which can also be triggered by external factors like hormonal imbalance, use of low-quality cosmetics, stress, and side effects of some medications. Individuals with oily skin type should avoid using creams and moisturizers. Hyaluronic acid helps oily skin to remain hydrated without making it greasy. Glycolic acid can decrease pores without causing the skin to dry up. Salicylic acid helps in gentle exfoliation of the skin by cleaning it thereby preventing acne.
Combination skin - This skin is represented by oily type in the T- zone which is forehead, nose, and chin, and dry to normal type in the cheek area. The skincare regimen for combination skin should be split in such a way that oily skin products should be applied on the T zone and normal to dry skin products should be applied on the areas other than the oily zone. Depending on the seasons, cleansers and moisturizing solutions should be altered to balance the skin tone accordingly.
Throughout our lifetime, we come across various skin conditions that can occur as a result of both internal and external factors such as climate change, meditation side effects, nutrition, stress, aging, physical activity or inactivity, skin allergies, and adverse reactions to some skincare products. Some of these conditions can be set right by the use of a good skincare routine whereas some of them are genetically inherited and cannot be reverted. The most commonly occurring skin conditions include:
Individuals with sensitive skin are more likely to exhibit inflammatory reactions and it is most commonly associated with those with dry skin. Skin sensitivity manifests in the form of itching, burning, and visible red patches. Sensitivity triggers such as exposure to excessive heat, alcohol, and stress should be identified and avoided in the future such individuals. The use of antioxidants is beneficial in repairing damaged skin by eliminating free radicals.
When pores present in the skin are blocked by either dirt, bacteria, dead skin cells, or oil, it gives rise to acne which often forms a pimple most commonly found in the face and also in other parts of the body like the back, shoulders neck and chest. Acne manifests in the form of blackheads, whiteheads, papules, pustules, nodules, or cysts which can cause scarring leading to emotional distress and social anxiety. Application of topical creams and antibiotics help in reducing inflammation and destroy acne-causing bacteria.
Wrinkles are the most prominent signs of aging leading to loss of skin elasticity and reduced moisture production. Prematurely, wrinkles are also caused by reduced estrogen levels, improper blood circulation, and genetic disorders. With age, the number of lipid-storing layers deep in the skin starts decreasing which causes the skin to sag and leads to volume loss which causes wrinkle formation along with the hollow in cheeks and temples. Oxidative stress causing triggers such as sun exposure, pollution, and smoking of tobacco leads to the release of free radicals which damage naturally occurring skin components like hyaluronic acid, collagen, and elastin. Anti-aging products should be used to reduce the appearance of wrinkles along with increased consumption of antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables. Laser skin tightening minimizes the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines.
It is a condition in which an area of skin becomes darker in appearance in comparison to the surrounding skin which usually occurs as a result of excessive melanin which is a brown pigment responsible for determining the skin colour. Sunscreen application is necessary for preserving even skin tone throughout and preventing hyperpigmentation caused as a result of exposure to the sun. Topical application of azelaic acid, corticosteroids, and vitamin C also helps in reducing hyperpigmentation.
Dietary modifications to attain healthy skin
Foods that are good for maintaining healthy skin include olive oil which contains antioxidants and prevents early onset of ageing, fruits like blueberries, strawberries, grapefruit which are a rich source of vitamin C and help in the regeneration of skin and exhibit anti-aging properties. Omega -3 fatty acids rich diet sourced from fatty fish which makes the skin strong, eggs, salmon, and sardines which strengthen skin cells, vegetables like carrots, sweet potatoes, leafy green vegetables, and apricots which are rich in B- carotene and lycopene-rich foods like tomatoes, red peppers and watermelon prevent sunburn and contribute to healthy skin.
Foods like cod, dairy products, excessive amounts of sugar, seafood, and seaweed cause skin breakouts in some individuals and should be avoided. Adequate hydration is essential for skin cells to remain healthy which otherwise may appear tight and flaky. Natural skin care products should be used whenever possible to prevent the side effects of harsh chemicals present in some cosmetics. Products like Alvizia hair, skin, and nails supplement contain biotin, collagen, and luten which improves skin condition and makes it look younger and healthier.